Its name comes from the Nahuatl language, “Cholollan”, meaning "falling water into the runaway place". This is one of the oldest settlements in Mexico, and it has been continuously occupied from the top Preclassic time (150 AD). However, its importance in Mesoamerica was variable along the two thousand year history of the native civilization.
The most important building in the archaeological site is the Temple of Tlaloc, locally venerated for its calendrical name: 9 Rain or Chiconquiáhuitl. Pyramidal base built during different phases, dedicated to that pre-Hispanic deity whose worship was one of the most important in the whole Mesoamerica. It is one of the most voluminous pyramids in the world, and it has long remained in forgetfulness, believing that it was just a mountain. This temple was abandoned 100 years after the fall of Teotihuacán (650-700 AD), in time of the Toltec hegemony in Mesoamerica. It has also notable examples of mural painting, such as the one called Mural of the Drinkers.
By 1300 A.D., Cholula was abandoned by Toltecs and at the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519, the Cholulans were privileged tributaries to Tenochtitlan, and enemies of the Tlaxcalans.
On the top of the Great Pyramid they built a Catholic church during the colonial time, the Chapel of Remedies.